Fostering A Sense of Community and Engagement in Virtual Flipped Classrooms: The Role of Asynchronous Sessions


  • FX. Risang Baskara Universitas Sanata Dharma, Yogyakarta


Asynchronous sessions, Community of Inquiry, Student engagement, Virtual flipped classroom


The virtual flipped classroom is an instructional model that utilises both asynchronous and synchronous sessions and has become popular in education. However, the relationship between virtual flipped classrooms and the concept of a community of inquiry is not well understood. This study examines the role of asynchronous sessions in fostering a sense of community and engagement among students in virtual flipped classrooms. The study is based on the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework, which posits that students' sense of belonging and engagement is critical for developing a community of inquiry. The study reviews the literature on the concept of a community of inquiry and how it applies to virtual flipped classrooms and existing theoretical frameworks related to virtual flipped classrooms. The study analyses how the use of asynchronous sessions in virtual flipped classrooms can impact the development of a community of inquiry and discusses the potential challenges and limitations of asynchronous sessions in virtual flipped classrooms. The study finds that asynchronous sessions can play a crucial role in fostering a sense of community among students and promoting engagement, which are essential elements in the CoI framework but also highlights the challenges of lack of immediate feedback and potential technical difficulties. The study concludes that the design and implementation of asynchronous sessions should be aligned with the CoI framework to optimise the chances of fostering community and engagement among students in virtual flipped classrooms.


Adi Badiozaman, I. F. binti, Leong, H., and Jikus, O., Investigating student engagement in Malaysian higher

education: A self-determination theory approach, Journal of Further and Higher Education, vol. 44, no. 10, pp.

–1378, 2020.

Al-Amrani, S. N., and Harrington, M., The impact of online social presence on Omani female students' willingness to

communicate in English, Computer-Assisted Language Learning Electronic Journal, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 220–

, 2020.

Alamri, H. A., Alamri, H., Watson, S. L., and Watson, W. R., Learning Technology Models That Support

Personalization within Blended Learning Environments in Higher Education, Techtrends, vol. 65, no. 1, pp.

–78, 2021.

Antonio, R. L. B., Assessing flipped classroom in flexible learning via Community of Inquiry framework, ETERNAL

(English, Teaching, Learning, and Research Journal), vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 94–107, 2022.

Cakiroglu, U., Community of inquiry in web conferencing: Relationships between cognitive presence and academic

achievements, Open Praxis, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 243–260, 2019.

Chen, L.-T., and Liu, L., Social presence in multidimensional online discussion: The roles of group size and

requirements for discussions, Computers in the Schools, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 116–140, 2020.

Chen, R. H., Effects of deliberate practice on blended learning sustainability: A community of inquiry perspective,

Sustainability, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 1785, 2022.

Chiu, T. K., Student engagement in K-12 online learning amid COVID-19: A qualitative approach from a selfdetermination theory perspective, Interactive Learning Environments, pp. 1–14, 2021.

Chiu, T. K., Sun, J. C.-Y., and Ismailov, M., Investigating the relationship of technology learning support to digital

literacy from the perspective of self-determination theory, Educational Psychology, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 1263–

, 2022.

Cleveland-Innes, M., The community of inquiry theoretical framework: Designing collaborative online and blended

learning, In Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age (pp. 85–102), Routledge, 2019.

Conklin, S., and Dikkers, A. G., Instructor social presence and connectedness in a quick shift from face-to-face to

online instruction. Online Learning, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 135–150, 2021.

Conrad, C., Deng, Q., Caron, I., Shkurska, O., Skerrett, P., and Sundararajan, B., How student perceptions about online

learning difficulty influenced their satisfaction during Canada's Covid‐19 response. British Journal of

Educational Technology, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 534–557, 2022.

Debbağ, M., and Yıldız, S., Effect of the flipped classroom model on academic achievement and motivation in teacher

education. Education and Information Technologies, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 3057–3076, 2021.

Delello, J. A., McWhorter, R. R., and Lawrence, H., Fostering a community of inquiry in online discussions. Academic

Exchange Quarterly, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 51–57, 2019.

Dempsey, P. R., and Zhang, J., Re-examining the construct validity and causal relationships of teaching, cognitive,

and social presence in Community of Inquiry framework. Online Learning, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 62–79, 2019.

Fiock, H. (2020). Designing a community of inquiry in online courses. The International Review of Research in Open

and Distributed Learning, 21(1), 135–153, 2020.

Garrison, D. R., Shared Metacognition in a Community of Inquiry, Online Learning, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 6–18, 2022.

Goh, L. H., The gathering of the community of inquiry in online learning, International Journal of Information and

Education Technology, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 494–499, 2020.

Gopalan, C., Butts-Wilmsmeyer, C., and Moran, V. (2021). Virtual flipped teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Advances in Physiology Education, 45(4), 670–678.

Granić, A., and Marangunić, N., Technology acceptance model in educational context: A systematic literature review,

British Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 2572–2593, 2019.

Guo, C., Shea, P., and Chen, X., Investigation on graduate students' social presence and social knowledge construction

in two online discussion settings, Education and Information Technologies, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 2751–2769,

Hew, K. F., Jia, C., Gonda, D. E., and Bai, S., Transitioning to the "new normal" of learning in unpredictable times:

Pedagogical practices and learning performance in fully online flipped classrooms, International Journal of

Educational Technology in Higher Education, vol. 17, pp. 1–22, 2020.

Hoffman, E., The centrality of teaching presence: Using multiple modes to facilitate collaborative active engagement

in a synchronous teacher online learning community, Journal of Interactive Learning Research, vol. 30, no. 2,

pp. 107–145, 2019.

Hong, X., Zhang, M., and Liu, Q., Preschool teachers' technology acceptance during the COVID-19: An adapted

technology acceptance model, Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 12, pp. 691492, 2021.

Humrickhouse, E., Flipped classroom pedagogy in an online learning environment: A self-regulated introduction to

information literacy threshold concepts, The Journal of Academic Librarianship, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 102327,

Islam, M. K., Sarker, M. F. H., and Islam, M. S., Promoting student-centred blended learning in higher education: A

model, E-Learning and Digital Media, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 36–54, 2022.

Ismail, S. S., and Abdulla, S. A.,Virtual flipped classroom: New teaching model to grant the learners knowledge and

motivation. Journal of Technology and Science Education, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 168–183, 2019.

Kay, D., and Pasarica, M., Using technology to increase student (and faculty satisfaction with) engagement in medical

education, Advances in Physiology Education, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 408–413, 2019.

Kennedy, H. R., and Do, K. A., Synchronous videoconferencing: Social presence and the engagement of different

learners in a blended family studies course, Family Science Review, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 43–65, 2020.

Khan, R. A., Atta, K., Sajjad, M., and Jawaid, M., Twelve tips to enhance student engagement in synchronous online

teaching and learning, Medical Teacher, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 601–606, 2022

Kilis, S., and Yildirim, Z., Posting patterns of students' social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence in

online learning, Online Learning, vol. 23, no. 2, 2019.

Kim, G., and Gurvitch, R., Online education research adopting the community of inquiry framework: A systematic

review, Quest, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 395–409, 2020.

Kormos, E., Julio, L., and Morgan, A., Preservice Teacher Perceptions of Using Video Discussions to Foster a

Community of Inquiry—Does the Learning Environment Matter?, TechTrends, pp. 1–11, 2023.

Koszalka, T. A., Pavlov, Y., and Wu, Y., The informed use of pre-work activities in collaborative asynchronous online

discussions: The exploration of idea exchange, content focus, and deep learning, Computers and Education,

vol. 161, pp. 104067, 2021.

Lapitan Jr, L. D., Tiangco, C. E., Sumalinog, D. A. G., Sabarillo, N. S., and Diaz, J. M., An effective blended online

teaching and learning strategy during the COVID-19 pandemic, Education for Chemical Engineers, vol. 35,

pp. 116–131, 2021.

Lee, Y.-J., Davis, R., and Li, Y., Implementing Synchronous Online Flipped Learning for Pre-Service Teachers during

COVID-19, European Journal of Educational Research, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 653–661, 2022.

Marshall, H. W., and Kostka, I., Fostering Teaching Presence through the Synchronous Online Flipped Learning

Approach, Tesl-Ej, vol. 24, no. 2, n2, 2020.

Martin, F., Wu, T., Wan, L., and Xie, K., A Meta-Analysis on the Community of Inquiry Presences and Learning

Outcomes in Online and Blended Learning Environments, Online Learning, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 325–359, 2022.

Martínez-Jiménez, R., and Ruiz-Jiménez, M. C.,Improving students' satisfaction and learning performance using

flipped classroom, The International Journal of Management Education, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 100422, 2020.

McWatt, S. C., Responding to Covid‐19: A thematic analysis of students' perspectives on modified learning activities

during an emergency transition to remote human anatomy education, Anatomical Sciences Education, vol. 14,

no. 6, pp. 721–738, 2021.

Moore, R. L., and Miller, C. N., Fostering Cognitive Presence in Online Courses: A Systematic Review (2008-2020),

Online Learning, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 130–149, 2022.

Nasir, M. K. M., and Ngah, A. H., The Sustainability of a Community of Inquiry in Online Course Satisfaction in

Virtual Learning Environments in Higher Education, Sustainability, vol. 14, no. 15, pp. 9633, 2022.

Nolan-Grant, C. R., The Community of Inquiry framework as learning design model: A case study in postgraduate

online education, Research in Learning Technology, vol. 27, 2019.

Parrish, C. W., Williams, D. S., and Estis, J. M., Integrated online team‐based learning: Using synchronous

engagement and asynchronous flexibility to implement TBL online, New Directions for Teaching and

Learning, vol. 2021, no. 165, pp. 91–105, 2021.

Patwardhan, V., Rao, S., and Prabhu, N., Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework and course design as predictors of

satisfaction in emergency remote teaching: Perspectives of hospitality management students, Journal of ELearning and Knowledge Society, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 94–103, 2020.

Phillips, C., and O'Flaherty, J., Evaluating nursing students' engagement in an online course using flipped virtual

classrooms, Student Success, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 59–72, 2019.

Rehman, R., and Fatima, S. S., An innovation in Flipped Class Room: A teaching model to facilitate synchronous and

asynchronous learning during a pandemic, Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 131, 2021.

Salloum, S. A., Alhamad, A. Q. M., Al-Emran, M., Monem, A. A., and Shaalan, K., Exploring students' acceptance

of e-learning through the development of a comprehensive technology acceptance model, IEEE Access, vol.

, pp. 128445–128462, 2019.

Serdyukov, P., Asynchronous/synchronous learning chasm, In Exploring online learning through synchronous and

asynchronous instructional methods (pp. 1–33), IGI Global, 2020.

Shea, P., and Bidjerano, T., Community of inquiry as a theoretical framework to foster "epistemic engagement" and

"cognitive presence" in online education, Computers and Education, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 543–553, 2009.

Shoepe, T. C., McManus, J. F., August, S. E., Mattos, N. L., Vollucci, T. C., and Sparks, P. R., Instructor prompts and

student engagement in synchronous online nutrition classes, American Journal of Distance Education, vol. 34,

no. 3, pp. 194–210, 2020.

Shrestha, S., Gnawali, L., and Laudari, S., Issues of participant retention in an online course for English as a foreign

language teachers, International Journal of Research in English Education, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 86–98, 2022.

Singh, J., Singh, L., and Matthees, B., Establishing social, cognitive, and teaching presence in online learning—A

panacea in COVID-19 pandemic, post vaccine and post pandemic times, Journal of Educational Technology

Systems, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 28–45, 2022.

Swan, K., Chen, C.-C., and Bockmier-Sommers, D. K., Relationships Between Carl Rogers' Person-Centered

Education and the Community of Inquiry Framework: A Preliminary Exploration, Online Learning, vol. 24,

no. 3, pp. 4–18, 2020.

Tao, D., Fu, P., Wang, Y., Zhang, T., and Qu, X., Key characteristics in designing massive open online courses

(MOOCs) for user acceptance: An application of the extended technology acceptance model, Interactive

Learning Environments, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 882–895, 2022.

Van Wart, M., Ni, A., Rose, L., McWeeney, T., and Worrell, R., A literature review and model of online teaching

effectiveness integrating concerns for learning achievement, student satisfaction, faculty satisfaction, and

institutional results, Pan-Pacific Journal of Business Research, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1–22, 2019.

Wang, C. J., Liu, W. C., Kee, Y. H., and Chian, L. K., Competence, autonomy, and relatedness in the classroom:

Understanding students' motivational processes using the self-determination theory, Heliyon, vol. 5, no. 7,

e01983, 2019.

Wang, Y., and Liu, Q., Effects of online teaching presence on students' interactions and collaborative knowledge

construction, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 370–382, 2020.

Wut, T., and Xu, J., Person-to-person interactions in online classroom settings under the impact of COVID-19: A

social presence theory perspective, Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 371–383, 2021.

Yandra, F. P., Alsolami, B., Sopacua, I. O., and Prajogo, W., The role of community of inquiry and self-efficacy on

accounting students' satisfaction in online learning environment, Jurnal Siasat Bisnis, pp. 1–16, 2021.

Zhang, Y., Tian, Y., Yao, L., Duan, C., Sun, X., and Niu, G., Teaching presence predicts cyberloafing during online

learning: From the perspective of the community of inquiry framework and social learning theory, British

Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 1651–1666, 2022.

Zydney, J. M., Warner, Z., and Angelone, L., Learning through experience: Using design based research to redesign

protocols for blended synchronous learning environments, Computers and Education, vol. 143, pp. 103678,




How to Cite

FX. Risang Baskara. (2023). Fostering A Sense of Community and Engagement in Virtual Flipped Classrooms: The Role of Asynchronous Sessions. Proceeding ADRI International Conference on Multidisciplinary Research, 1(1), 202–213. Retrieved from